Executive Summary

Egypt, commonly known as “The Motherland of the World”, “Land of Civilizations” and “The Greatest Power in Human History”, is reputed worldwide for its distinct 7,000-year-old record of civilization and immense wealth of knowledge. This has made Egypt a master and pioneer of science, arts, culture, architecture as well as almost all fields of human knowledge.

Amongst all civilizations and nations, Egypt has always maintained a unique position. Historically, Egypt is universally acknowledged as the world's most ancient state with a unified societal entity within its current geographical borders.

Egypt enjoys a distinguished geographical location at the juncture of the ancient world continents of Africa, Asia and Europe. It has always been a place of inter-civilization reactivation between the East and the West as well as the North and the South. Egypt was also the crossing road of the heavenly religions of the world.

Geographic borders:
Egypt occupies the Northern corner of Africa. It is bounded by the international frontier of the Mediterranean Sea in the North, of the Red Sea in the East, of the Libya in the west and Sudan in the south.

Area: Arab Republic of Egypt has a total area of 1.2 million Km2
Capital: Cairo-the Triumphant City-is the glorious capital of Egypt, the cradle of civilization and the beacon of religion and one of the most outstanding capitals in the world.
Geographical Location: Egypt can be divided into four major parts:

1. The Nile Valley and Delta
extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea. The River Nile in the north is divided into two branches, Dumiat and Rashid which embrace the highly fertile agricultural lands of the Delta.

2- The Western Desert
Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west, and from the Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's Southern borders. It is divided into:

• The Northern Section: includes the coastal plane, the northern plateau and the Great Depression, Natroun Valley and Baharia Oasis

• The Southern section: includes Farafra, Kharga, Dakhla, and el-Owainat in the extreme south.

3- The Eastern Desert
Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea, Suez gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern birders with Sudan in the south. The Eastern Desert is marked with the Eastern Mountains that range along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to about 3000 feet above sea level. This desert is considered a store of Egyptian natural resources including various ores such as gold, coal, and oil.

4- The Sinai Peninsula
Sinai is shaped like a triangle having its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its apex in the South at Ras Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal to the west. It is topographically divided into three main sections:

• The southern section: involves extremely tough terrain, is composed of high rise granite mountains. Mount Catherine rises about 2640 meters above sea level, thus making it the highest mountain top in Egypt.

• The Central section: comprises the area bounded by the Mediterranean to the North and At-Teeh plateau to the south. It is a plain area having abundant water resources derived from rain water that flows from southern heights to the central plateau.